AP National Writer
BRACEVILLE, Ill. (AP) — Radioactive tritium has leaked from three-quarters
of U.S. commercial nuclear power sites, often into groundwater from
corroded, buried piping, an Associated Press investigation shows.
The number and severity of the leaks has been escalating, even as federal
regulators extend the licenses of more and more reactors across the nation.
Tritium, which is a radioactive form of hydrogen, has leaked from at least
48 of 65 sites, according to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission records
reviewed as part of the AP’s yearlong examination of safety issues at aging
nuclear power plants. Leaks from at least 37 of those facilities contained
concentrations exceeding the federal drinking water standard — sometimes at
hundreds of times the limit.
While most leaks have been found within plant boundaries, some have migrated
offsite. But none is known to have reached public water supplies.
At three sites — two in Illinois and one in Minnesota — leaks have
contaminated drinking wells of nearby homes, the records show, but not at
levels violating the drinking water standard. At a fourth site, in New
Jersey, tritium has leaked into an aquifer and a discharge canal feeding
picturesque Barnegat Bay off the Atlantic Ocean.
In response to the AP’s investigation, two congressman — Edward J. Markey of
Massachusetts and Peter Welsh of Vermont, both Democrats — on Tuesday
released a study by independent federal analysts who had identified problems
with the regulation of underground piping.
The report by the U.S. Government Accountability Office noted that while the
industry has a voluntary initiative to monitor leaks into underground water
sources, the NRC hasn’t evaluated how promptly that system detects such
leaks. “Absent such an assessment, we continue to believe that NRC has no
assurance that the Groundwater Protection Initiative will lead to prompt
detection of underground piping system leaks as nuclear power plants age,”
the report’s authors concluded.
Any exposure to radioactivity, no matter how slight, boosts cancer risk,
according to the National Academy of Sciences. Federal regulators set a
limit for how much tritium is allowed in drinking water, where this
contaminant poses its main health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency says tritium should measure no more than 20,000 picocuries per liter
in drinking water. The agency estimates seven of 200,000 people who drink
such water for decades would develop cancer.
The tritium leaks also have spurred doubts among independent engineers about
the reliability of emergency safety systems at the 104 nuclear reactors
situated on the 65 sites. That’s partly because some of the leaky
underground pipes carry water meant to cool a reactor in an emergency
shutdown and to prevent a meltdown. Fast moving, tritium can indicate the
presence of more powerful radioactive isotopes, like cesium-137 and
So far, federal and industry officials say, the tritium leaks pose no health
or safety threat. Tony Pietrangelo, chief nuclear officer of the industry’s
Nuclear Energy Institute, said impacts are “next to zero.”
LEAKS ARE PROLIFIC
Like rust under a car, corrosion has propagated for decades along the
hard-to-reach, wet underbellies of the reactors — generally built in a burst
of construction during the 1960s and 1970s.
There were 38 leaks from underground piping between 2000 and 2009, according
to an industry document presented at a tritium conference. Nearly two-thirds
of the leaks were reported over the latest five years.
For example, at the three-unit Browns Ferry complex in Alabama, a valve was
mistakenly left open in a storage tank during modifications over the years.
When the tank was filled in April 2010, about 1,000 gallons of tritium-laden
water poured onto the ground at a concentration of 2 million picocuries per
liter. In drinking water, that would be 100 times higher than the EPA health
And in 2008, 7.5 million picocuries per liter leaked from underground piping
at Quad Cities in western Illinois — 375 times the EPA limit.
Subsurface water not only rusts underground pipes, it attacks other buried
components, including electrical cables that carry signals to control
A 2008 NRC staff memo reported industry data showing 83 failed cables
between 21 and 30 years of service — but only 40 within their first 10 years
of service. Underground cabling set in concrete can be extraordinarily
difficult to replace.
Under NRC rules, tiny concentrations of tritium and other contaminants are
routinely released in monitored increments from nuclear plants; leaks from
corroded pipes are not permitted.
The leaks sometimes go undiscovered for years, the AP found. Many of the
pipes or tanks have been patched, and contaminated soil and water have been
removed in some places. But leaks are often discovered later from other
nearby piping, tanks or vaults. Mistakes and defective material have
contributed to some leaks. However, corrosion — from decades of use and
deterioration — is the main cause. And, safety engineers say, the rash of
leaks suggest nuclear operators are hard put to maintain the decades-old
Over the history of the U.S. industry, more than 400 known radioactive leaks
of all kinds of substances have occurred, the activist Union of Concerned
Scientists reported in September.
Nuclear engineer Bill Corcoran, an industry consultant who has taught NRC
personnel how to analyze the cause of accidents, said that since much of the
piping is inaccessible and carries cooling water, the worry is if the pipes
leak there could be a meltdown.
“Any leak is a problem because you have the leak itself — but it also says
something about the piping,” said Mario V. Bonaca, a former member of the
NRC’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. “Evidently something has to
However, even with the best probes, it is hard to pinpoint partial cracks or
damage in skinny pipes or bends. The industry tends to inspect piping when
it must be dug up for some other reason. Even when leaks are detected,
repairs may be postponed for up to two years with the NRC’s blessing.
“You got pipes that have been buried underground for 30 or 40 years, and
they’ve never been inspected, and the NRC is looking the other way,” said
engineer Paul Blanch, who has worked for the industry and later became a
whistleblower. “They could have corrosion all over the place.”
EAST COAST ISSUES
One of the highest known tritium readings was discovered in 2002 at the
Salem nuclear plant in Lower Alloways Creek Township, N.J. Tritium leaks
from the spent fuel pool contaminated groundwater under the facility —
located on an island in Delaware Bay — at a concentration of 15 million
picocuries per liter. That’s 750 times the EPA drinking water limit.
According to NRC records, the tritium readings last year still exceeded EPA
drinking water standards.
And tritium found separately in an onsite storm drain system measured 1
million picocuries per liter in April 2010.
Also last year, the operator, PSEG Nuclear, discovered 680 feet of corroded,
buried pipe that is supposed to carry cooling water to Salem Unit 1 in an
accident, according to an NRC report. Some had worn down to a quarter of its
minimum required thickness, though no leaks were found. The piping was dug
up and replaced.
The operator had not visually inspected the piping — the surest way to find
corrosion— since the reactor went on line in 1977, according to the NRC.
PSEG Nuclear was found to be in violation of NRC rules because it hadn’t
even tested the piping since 1988.
Last year, the Vermont Senate was so troubled by tritium leaks as high as
2.5 million picocuries per liter at the Vermont Yankee reactor in southern
Vermont (125 times the EPA drinking-water standard) that it voted to block
relicensing — a power that the Legislature holds in that state.
In March, the NRC granted the plant a 20-year license extension, despite the
state opposition. Weeks ago, operator Entergy sued Vermont in federal court,
challenging its authority to force the plant to close.
At 41-year-old Oyster Creek in southern New Jersey, the country’s oldest
operating reactor, the latest tritium troubles started in April 2009, a week
after it was relicensed for 20 more years. That’s when plant workers
discovered tritium by chance in about 3,000 gallons of water that had leaked
into a concrete vault housing electrical lines.
Since then, workers have found leaking tritium three more times at
concentrations up to 10.8 million picocuries per liter — 540 times the EPA’s
drinking water limit — according to the New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection. None has been directly measured in drinking water,
but it has been found in an aquifer and in a canal discharging into nearby
Barnegat Bay, a popular spot for swimming, boating and fishing.
EXELON’S PIPING PROBLEMS
To Oyster Creek owner Exelon — the country’s biggest nuclear operator, with
17 units — piping problems are just a fact of life. At a meeting with
regulators in 2009, representatives of Exelon acknowledged that “100 percent
verification of piping integrity is not practical,” according to a copy of
Of course, the company could dig up the pipes and check them out. But that
would be costly.
“Excavations have significant impact on plant operations,” the company said.
Exelon has had some major leaks. At the company’s two-reactor Dresden site
west of Chicago, tritium has leaked into the ground at up to 9 million
picocuries per liter — 450 times the federal limit for drinking water. Leaks
from Dresden also have contaminated offsite drinking water wells, but below
the EPA drinking water limit.
There’s also been contamination of offsite drinking water wells near the
two-unit Prairie Island plant southeast of Minneapolis, then operated by
Nuclear Management Co. and now by Xcel Energy, and at Exelon’s two-unit
Braidwood nuclear facility, 10 miles from Dresden. The offsite tritium
concentrations from both facilities also were below the EPA level.
The Prairie Island leak was found in the well of a nearby home in 1989. It
was traced to a canal where radioactive waste was discharged.
Braidwood has leaked more than six million gallons of tritium-laden water in
repeated leaks dating back to the 1990s — but not publicly reported until
2005. The leaks were traced to pipes that carried limited, monitored
discharges of tritium into the river.
“They weren’t properly maintained, and some of them had corrosion,” said
Exelon spokeswoman Krista Lopykinski.
Last year, Exelon, which has acknowledged violating Illinois state
groundwater standards, agreed to pay $1.2 million to settle state and county
complaints over the tritium leaks at Braidwood and nearby Dresden and Byron
sites. The NRC also sanctioned Exelon.
Tritium measuring 1,500 picocuries per liter turned up in an offsite
drinking well at a home near Braidwood. Though company and industry
officials did not view any of the Braidwood concentrations as dangerous,
unnerved residents took to bottled water and sued over feared loss of
property value. A consolidated lawsuit was dismissed, but Exelon ultimately
bought some homes so residents could leave.
PUBLIC RELATIONS EFFORT
An NRC task force on tritium leaks last year dismissed the danger to public
health. Instead, its report called the leaks “a challenging issue from the
perspective of communications around environmental protection.” The task
force noted ruefully that the rampant leaking had “impacted public
For sure, the industry also is trying to stop the leaks. For several years
now, plant owners around the country have been drilling more monitoring
wells and taking a more aggressive approach in replacing old piping when
leaks are suspected or discovered.
But such measures have yet to stop widespread leaking.
Meantime, the reactors keep getting older — 66 have been approved for
20-year extensions to their original 40-year licenses, with 16 more
extensions pending. And, as the AP has been reporting in its ongoing series,
Aging Nukes, regulators and industry have worked in concert to loosen safety
standards to keep the plants operating.
In an initiative started last year, NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko asked his
staff to examine regulations on buried piping to evaluate if stricter
standards or more inspections were needed.
The staff report, issued in June, openly acknowledged that the NRC “has not
placed an emphasis on preventing” the leaks.
And they predicted even more.
The AP National Investigative Team can be reached at investigate(at)ap.org